Friday, July 23, 2021

Leadership Theory

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Leadership Theory

According to Nathan F. Iannone, leadership can be defined as the art of influencing, directing, guiding, and controlling others in such a way as to obtain their willing obedience, confidence, respect and loyal cooperation in accomplishment of an objective. Leaders are not born…sure there are some gifts-traits-attributes, natural endowments that affect relative abilities…but they are not born, they are made. Any reasonably intelligent person with enough forcefulness to develop his/her ability to inspire others to follow him can earn leadership status. Remember that we have both formal and informal leaders…. Being a Captain /Sergeant doesn't make you a leader! Classic Leadership Theory Common Traits of Leaders. Booher and Watson refer to classic leadership theory because it describes an approach to understanding leadership that by and large is out of style. Nonetheless it is clear that one can learn a great deal by studying the important personal ingredients in the leadership equation. Studying the traits of great leaders became unpopular because it was and is associated with the "great man" theory of leadership. This approach was espoused in the 1th. and early 0th. Centuries, and asserted the leadership qualities are largely inherited. This was called "trait theory." Researchers such as Mann and Stodgill found no consistent correlate between particular traits and leadership. Later research, particularly more recent and more sophisticated work has found a consistent and strong relationship between certain traits and leadership. Possessing these core traits simply makes it more likely that a person will take the appropriate action leading to leadership success. Overhead # The Art of Leadership. What is the nature of leadership, leadership is an art! As with any form of artistic expression, painting, music, leadership is an art form in that it ɨ Is an expression of the individual within the social and environmental context. ɨ Reflects the individual's personality. ɨ Can be easier to demonstrate and develop when one has a talent for it. ɨ Can be learned-you may have a talent for it, you may not, either way, anyone can still become an effective leader. ɨ Is greatly enhanced through a disciplined regimen of learning and feedback. Through science, we can study the elements of leadership and provide valuable understanding into its nature. This enables us to determine where to focus our leadership skills and abilities, as well as measure to some extent, our effectiveness. However, the act of leading itself is largely unscientific and is far more akin to practicing an art form than studying scientific variables. Understanding both facets of leadership is crucial to your development as a leader. For you as a leader, remember that leadership is an art; your leadership is always a work in progress. OH # Leadership Styles. Many people believe that there is one type of leadership that is most effective, and if they can only develop that style, they would be effective as a leader. Some leaders have one style, and honestly believe that it is best to stick with what comes naturally. As with any art form, one has a number of tools at one's disposal. In leadership, these tools are different leadership styles. Although certain situations call for specific styles, most situations call for a combination of styles. The four general styles of leadership are 1. Autocratic. . Participative. . Laissez-faire. 4. Variable. Autocratic also known as authoritarian leadership is rule by authority. As a manager or supervisor, a person is endowed with a level of authority, which is expected to be obeyed. An autocratic leader rests on this fact, expecting his subordinates to comply. Participative leadership is often referred to as democratic although democratic processes (voting etc.) need not be present to constitute participative leadership. Laissez-faire leadership (really non-leadership) is a hands off approach. If the group's goals are being accomplished under the management of a LF leader, it is because the group members are self-motivated, demonstrate effective teamwork, and exhibit expertise in their field. Variable leadership, a precursor to "situational leadership" draws from a combination of the above styles. Whether this form of leadership is effective depends on how each style is applied at what time. The styles of leadership help us understand how people go about practicing the art, the question how does our individual traits affect our ability to do so? OH #4 Leadership Traits. Traits can be described as our general orientation (paradigm) toward people and things. Regrettably we tend to view ourselves, as the way people ought to be. That is problematic. This clouds our judgment of ourselves and others, hindering our ability to ascertain weaknesses, and objectively evaluate and develop upon our strengths. Traits are such a fundamental aspect of our personalities that they lead us to display consistent behavior across different situations. (Each of us can be described in terms of our personal traits.) There are certain traits that are associated with effective leadership. They are so critical, yet difficult to pinpoint, that for centuries, volumes have been written in an effort to define and describe them. They are the critical foundation of successful leadership. These traits distinguish leaders from non-leaders. OH #5 Common Traits of Leaders continued. Integrity of character is the foundation of lasting and effective leadership. Kouzes and Posner assert, "Honesty is absolutely essential to leadership. After all, if we are willing to follow someone whether it is into battle or into the boardroom, we want first to assure ourselves that the person is worthy of our trust. We want to be fully confident in the integrity of our leaders." Professional competence includes a solid grasp of the methods, processes, procedures, and techniques of a leaders organization. This competence can be everything from "rocket science to parking tickets," without it leaders quickly lose the respect of their followers and find it difficult to make well-informed decisions. Certainly it is critical that given the pace of law enforcement, leaders are capable of making intelligent, quick strategies that solve problems. Make good decisions or you wont be around long as a boss. Genius is not required, above average intelligence is. Typically we imagine leaders doing only exciting things, letting others do the real work. This mental frame ignores the hard reality that being the boss isn't easy. High levels of energy are needed physical vitality helps leaders overcome the often unrelenting demands of leadership. Drive to excel, high desire for achievement, outstanding leaders drive themselves and their organizations to complete challenging assignments and achieve extraordinary results. OH #6 Traits of Leaders. Carl Watson and Carl Chimers (UC-Santa Cruz) tell us that confident leaders are more successful than ones who lack confidence. Self-confidence is important because confident leaders remain calm under pressure, persist doggedly in the face of adversity, and act boldly and confidently which helps encourage and embolden followers. A person riddled with self-doubt may not be able to act effectively under pressure or command respect of followers. "By demonstrating grace under pressure, the best leaders inspire those around them to stay calm and act intelligently." (K. Labich.) People who lack emotional stability are more prone to moodiness, angry outbursts, and inconsistent behavior. This undermines their relationships with followers, peers, and superiors. Highly successful leaders, on the other hand, remain even-tempered and are calm, confident and predictable during a crisis. Lastly, outstanding leaders have a strong desire to lead" they want to be in charge. To fulfill this desire they are more willing to accept responsibility and subsequently take decisive action. Leaders have a strong desire to have influence and impact others. In short, they accrue and use power. Power can be used pro-socially (responsibly) and it can be used capriciously. The fact that power can be abused should not blind us to the fact that it is necessary for organizations to function. Excellent leaders use their power to build up their organizations, develop their people, and make them successful. OH #7 Leadership Principles. Let us talk about leadership principles that guide people toward the actions that lead to successful leadership. If traits are the necessary preconditions for leadership; then principled actions are the fulfillment of the promise. OH #8 Moral courage is not an all or nothing proposition. Exceptional leaders consistently exhibit the unwavering courage of their convictions, often refusing to follow the easy path because it violates a moral standard. To become an effective leader, one must establish or adopt clearly defined moral standards, then adhere to then relentlessly. To develop their followers, you must know them well. Think how people are constantly changing…makes your job even more difficult. Managers (as opposed to leaders) restrict information to their people as a method of maintaining control and importance to the team. Leaders empower their people with information so that the entire team, and through this leader, can excel. Keeping people informed also provides feedback and points of reference to monitor success. Human beings have a tendency to form cliques. Although this natural tendency has advantages, its drawbacks tend to inhibit effective teamwork. The most significant way this happens is by stifling contrary points of view. Although we normally think that we want total agreement during all stages of a project, in reality contrary points of view provide more choice and help avoid unethical decision-making. Exceptional leaders demonstrate loyalty not only to their organization, but also to their followers. Being loyal means that they deeply consider what is best for others, despite what you may want or need for yourself. Do, as I say, not as I do is the best way to fail in leadership. Remember the old clich Actions speak louder than words, people can be inspired by words, but they follow actions. OH # Johari's Window. Self-knowledge is critical for people to develop and grow in every aspect of our lives, and that includes leadership skills. By being familiar with our strengths and limitations, we are able to use our strengths to best advantage and create a plan to expand the abilities we find limited. Alternately, we can surround ourselves with people who compensate for our limitations. Whatever approach we eventually take, self-knowledge is the first critical step. Johari's Window is a concept used by self-development trainers. It describes degrees of knowledge about the self in two dimensions, (1) that which is known/unknown to the self and () that which is known/unknown to others. Using these categories produces a two by two matrix of potential circumstances of knowledge regarding the self. The first quadrant, public knowledge describes things about us that we are aware of and so are others. The second quadrant, blind knowledge, can be what derails us from success as a leader. This quadrant describes things about us that others are aware of and that we are not; thus, we are blind to our true natures. Often, it is as simple as thinking we are better at something than we really are. Because this is such a large problem in organizations, many companies in private business have instituted multi-rater (60 degree) feedback processes. These allow superior, subordinates, and peers. To arte how effective leaders are on a variety of dimensions (usually based on a validated competency profile). Multi-rater feedback provides a great opportunity for leaders to reduce their blind spots. The third quadrant describes that which is neither known to us that we hide or keep private from others. Keeping things private is both expected and necessary OH #10 E-Cubed. Lets talk about how all these traits and principles fit together. First, we propose that integrity of character and moral courage are the foundation or basis of principled leadership. After the foundation of integrity and courage, we turn to what is called "e-cubed" which describes some leadership fundamentals. Extraordinary leaders enable their followers. That is, they set them up for success by ensuring that they have the right experiences, skills and resources. They also actively remove obstacles or barriers to success. In order to enable their people, leaders must be professionally competent, have the smarts to make right decisions, and have a through knowledge of the strengths, limitations, and preferences of their followers. Extraordinary leaders empower their followers. In other words they share information, power, and authority to make decisions and take action. How do these traits and principles come into this? Emotionally stable leaders do not allow their strong desire to lead to lure them into hoarding power, acting capriciously, developing cliques or playing favorites. These leaders understand that sharing information and power leads to better performance and more motivated followers. Extraordinary leaders energize their followers. They excite their followers by challenging them to met difficult goals, expressing confidence in their ability to meet the goal, and setting the example by their own enthusiasm, energy, and hard work toward the goal. OH #11 When Do You Know You Are a Great Leader? If people continue to write about your effective leadership 50 years after your death, that's a pretty good sign that you were a great leader. For everyone else, it's very difficult to tell. Some of us, whom have adoring followers, have failing organizations. Some of us who have successful organizations have burnt out and bitter followers. Few of us have both for a sustained period of time. When we do, it is easy to become with our leadership qualities. We suggest we should seek to raise our art to an even higher form, constantly seeking to become, and help others become, better leaders. With this view, we never become so enamored with ourselves that we say, "Yeah, I am a great leader." Instead, one recognizes that many factors contribute to leadership success, No small measure of our success is due the efforts, smarts, and tenacity of our followers. And, as the environment in which we do business change, so too must our leadership skills grow and expand. Three Lessons in Leadership People from top to bottom in most organizations exercise leadership. It does not require charisma; it is not mystical or mysterious. What is Leadership? Leadership is the process of giving meaningful direction to collective efforts. ɨ Giving meaning. ɨ Setting a direction ɨ Willing support and cooperation. Leadership vs. Management ɨ Planning vs. Setting a Direction ɨ Organizing and staffing vs.. Aligning People ɨ Controlling and problem Solving vs. Motivating People. Three Lessons in Leadership or E's ɨ Envisioning. ɨ Energizing. ɨ Enabling. The Three E's of Leadership. ɨ Articulating a Compelling Vision. Set the direction. ɨ Setting High Expectations. Encourage excellence. ɨ Modeling Consistent Behavior Walk the talk. The Three E's of Leadership. Energizing Demonstrating Personal Excitement Enthusiasm is contagious. Expressing Personal Confidence Confidence inspires. Seeking, Finding, and Using Success Celebrate and leverage success Enabling. Expressing Personal Support back people up. Empathizing Understand other's feelings. Expressing Confidence in People believe in them and they will believe. Leadership Competencies ɨ Action oriented. ɨ Building team spirit. ɨ Command skills. ɨ Ethics and integrity. ɨ Interpersonal savvy. ɨ Managing vision and purpose. ɨ Motivating and inspiring others. ɨ Problem solving and decision quality. ɨ Results orientation. ɨ Strategic agility.

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An Ins Calls

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An Inspector Calls

Act is the act where all the characters express their views of their responsibility for the death of Eva Smith, which contains valuable information about their willingness to change and share their guilt. From this act I will explore the thoughts and feelings of the Birlings and Gerald to understand whether they should change and share their guilt; and the obstacles which prevents them from doing so.

This play was set in 11; when the gap between the poor and the rich was getting bigger and bigger. The poor people were urging the government to set up a welfare state and there were fears of a revolution like the one in Russia. The Birlings is the one of the many rich families who still thinks 'there will be peace and prosperity and rapid progress everywhere". Their treatment towards Eva Smith describes how the upper-class was treating the lower-class at that time.

By the time when the play was written (144-5), Britain had already experienced the First and Second World Wars. Priestley used this chance combined with the play to convince the audiences that a welfare state is necessary and World War III can be prevented, through his themes of responsibility, conscience and pride.

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Inspector Goole is here to change the Birlings' opinions of the society around them and prevents them being taught it again in 'fire and blood and anguish." He combined the irresponsible actions of each character and makes them learn from their mistakes. However it is up to the characters to decide whether they should and willing to change.

In Act , the inspector leaves the stage and gives his finial warning, "One Eva Smith has gone but there are millions and millions and millions of Eva Smiths and John Smiths still left with us."

At this point, the characters are given the chance to make comments. Also the play had changed from a formal situation with the presence of inspector Goole into an informal family situation. This can be discovered in the change in the language. When the inspector was present everyone was giving out facts and perhaps a few opinion of the fact, Eric "About a fortnight afterwards." As soon as the inspector leaves, the speeches became opinions. Mrs. Birling "so - so rude - and assertive "

From these opinions of each character, we can see who is willing to change and who became 'nice' people again after the incident.

In this Act, Mr. and Mrs. Birling appear to be the most humiliated because they were tricked around by the inspector. At the family feast, Mr. Birling was in a joyful state, expressing his thoughts in front of the family. As the inspector enters he became serious "Birling (still angrily) Well if you don't mind ". Mrs. Birling was even more humiliated when she was blaming everything on a lower class young man and 'should be made an example of' who turned out to be her son.

Then as they discover that the whole thing was a hoax, their language sounded joyful again. "Birling (triumphantly) There you are!" The final phone call gave the elders a shock as well as added fun to the atmosphere. This effectively created dramatic irony at the end of the play, and the revealed the consequences of refusing to learn the lesson of responsibility. Also the audience knew that the whole thing might repeat itself and the two characters will have to be taught again in humiliation. J.B.Priestley and Inspector Goole used the theme of lies and its consequences here to counter-attack the older characters and make them convince their share of responsibility.

In this play, every member of the Birlings family and Gerald were involved with Eva Smith/Daisy Renton one way or another.

Mr. Birling turned her out of one job and Sheila had turned out of another. Gerald kept her for a time but left her. Then Eric picked her up and made her pregnant, she feels that Eric did not love her so she went to Mrs. Birling's charity for help. However Mrs. Birling considered her as an undeserving case and driven her to suicide.

Both Sheila and Eric have admitted their share of responsibility. Gerald, Mr. and Mrs. Birling still thinks that Eva Smith's suicide is none of their business; from the way they talked. "Birling (jovially) But the whole thing's different now".

Sheila is presented to the audience as a "half serious, half playful" girl. Her actions and attitudes at the beginning of the play seems completely normal. However, as the play develops throughout Act and , Sheila's thoughts had overtaken the other characters. She was the first character to understand the purpose of the inspector. This made her admit her share of responsibility of Eva's suicide. Also she had been completely honest with the inspector. "Sheila …At least, I'm trying to tell the truth…"

Sheila sees through the other characters' attempts trying to cover up the truth. "Birling The girl had been causing trouble in the works." Here, Mr. Birling is trying to prove that it was not his fault.

Although Sheila agrees with the inspector, she did try to communicate or warn the other characters that what they should and should not do. "Sheila (with sudden alarm) Mother stop stop!"

During the first two acts, Eric mainly acts as the character moving the story on. Although he did arouse some curiosities with his sudden guffaw and break off in mid-comment about women's opinions on clothes. These have been later revealed from Eric's involvement with Eva Smith.

Eric has a greater importance than Sheila; as the heir to the Birlings family. However, he seems hostile towards his parents, especially his father. He finds him unloving and unapproachable. "Because you're not the kind of father a chap could go to when he's in trouble - thats why".

As soon as Eric discovered his mother's lack of charity towards Eva Smith in Act , he was on the verge of physically attacking her.

Eric "(nearly at breaking point) Then - you killed her." In his eyes, his mother is the 'murder' of his wife and child.

Eric's share of responsibility for Eva's suicide is very great, even Eric himself admitted the fact "Yes. That was the worst of all". He is supporting the Sheila and helping the inspector to teach the elders the lesson of responsibility. "Eric (almost threatening her) You don't understand anything. You never did. You never even tried you "

Mr. Birling believed himself as a 'hard-headed' businessman who has to take risks and know what he's about. "But in fact, he knows a little about the things that were going on in the wider world, and he deliberately makes the wrong assumptions about the impossibility of was and the unsinkable Titanic. These opinions might give the audience an immediate impression that Mr. Birling is in fact very unimaginative.

During the conversation with the inspector, it is plainly obvious that Mr. Birling's goal is not to save his son in his conversation with Inspector Goole, but it is the possibility that he finds his way to the knighthood is what upsets him far more than anything else. "I was almost certain for a knighthood in the next Honours List "

To him, a knighthood not only means an upgrade of his position, but also, the pride of the whole family including Sheila. Therefore, Gerald will not judge Sheila as 'a girl beneath him', and thus make the marriage and his future business more successful.

As the inspector leaves the stage, Mr. Birling begins to pretend that 'nothing has really happened at all". And using commands "either stop or get out" to worn Sheila and Eric to show that he does not care about why the inspector came. From this, it revealed that Mr. Birling do not feel guilty at all and do not care for what he did to a lower-class person like Eva Smith.

Mrs. Birling is the chairwoman of Brumley Women Association. She is extremely snobbish and very conscious of her social position. This can be seen by the way she judge how people was treating her. "Well, I must say his manner was quite extraordinary;"

Mrs. Birling often stereotyped the lower-class, in her eyes, they are almost a different species and are always associated with bad things. She tried to explain this opinion to inspector Goole and tried to hide the facts, but was greatly humiliated when the lower-class young man with drinking problem turned out to be her own son.

Like Mr. Birling, Mrs. Birling puts her pride and social position at first place rather than condemning her son. This can be seen by the joy in her language when she discovered that the inspector was fake.

Sheila "All right. But it doesn't make any real difference y'know."

Mrs. B "Of course it does."

Gerald is a factory owner like Birling, he is also afraid of a public scandal. He sounded relieved and joyful when he figured out that the inspector was not real. Whilst celebrating with Mr. Birling. "(Smiling) Thanks, I think I could just do with one now."

Unlike Mr. and Mrs. Birling, who was too busy describing how well they have behaved and did not let go much information. Gerald used his common sense to review and identify the inspector. This shows that Gerald is more interested in why the inspector is here.

Gerald gave away some information, but decided to avoid further questioning by "going for a walk", this shows that he is unwilling to know or tell any more fact. But Gerald did keep Eva Smith/Daisy Renton happy for a time; and in many ways, Gerald should be the least to be blamed for Eva's death.

Within the whole play, Gerald's attitude towards the inspector is unclear. He neither agree nor disagree with the inspectors' words and his state of mind can be described as sitting on the fence.

In 11 when the play was set, Britain was in a society of a mixture of capitalism and socialism. As the gap between the rich and the poor gets greater, the poor became more united and this lead to many small strikes. Within this confused society, people gave different opinions and attitudes towards their actions.

Britain had always been capitalism since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Gerald, Mr. and Mrs. Birling were grown up in these societies, and therefore are very keen at keeping the country capitalism. They believed that the idea of "everyone has to look after everybody else" was "nonsense"

Mr. Birling assumed that Britain would maintain capitalism. "And we're in for a time of steady increasing prosperity". This selfish comment proves that Mr. Birling hoped the society should stay as capitalism to the next generation.

Mr. Birling is used to live in a capitalism society, his fate and power is based on this kind of society. If he and people like him disobey the rules of capitalism, there would not only be public scandals but a revolution which could make them lose everything.

However, for the younger generation (i.e. Sheila and Eric), their minds and attitudes towards the state of the society are different to that of their parents. Both Sheila and Eric realised that people like Eva Smith does not deserve suffering and they are the ones responsible for her suicide. "We are responsible for each other." These speeches are also a representative of the upper class beginning to feel responsible for a lower class.

The reason that they do realize their irresponsible actions and make the change might be the fact that they do not have anything to lose unlike the elders who either has property of social pride at stake.

J.B.Priestley used different kinds of language to reveal the personalities and opinions of each character. As the inspector leaves the stage, the whole family began to argue about their responsibility. Sheila and Eric are on the socialist side who persuades the elders to take responsibility. Sheila "The point is, you don't seem to have learnt anything."

The elders on the capitalist side expect the youngsters to stay as the way they were. Birling "Any more of that you are out of this room".

Both sides' speech contained dashes and questions which only has one answer; to convince the other side of what is responsibility. Sheila "That'll be terrible for her, won't it?"

In Mr. Birling's speech below

Mr. Birling "… (Imitating INSPECTOR in his final speech.) You all helped to kill her. (Pointing at SHEILA and ERIC, and laughing.)…"

J.B.Priestley used stage directions in brackets to show that Mr. Birling is careless about the death of Eva Smith and was not afraid of the inspector.

In fact all these arguments are based on the conclusion of the inspector's speech "if men will not learn that lesson, then they will be taught it in fire and blood and anguish". Indeed, it was people like the Birlings who were not convinced to change the society and were taught in the First and Second World Wars.

The play was set in 11, at this time, the poorer proportion of the population was increasing, more and more people were urging the government to set up a welfare state, and introduce the basic services like pension and free school dinners. However, people like Mr. Birling thinks that the idea is 'nonsense' and will go away in a while.

Further more, Mr. Birling mentioned about 'the Titanic she sails next week' and the Revolution in Russia, which gave further details that the play was set two weeks before the Titanic sunk.

From the attitudes of the Birlings, especially Mrs. Birling, is revealed that the lower-class were still treated badly at the time the play was set.

When the play was written it was already in the 140s. This difference in time allowed Priestley to create dramatic ironies like the sinking of the Titanic which Mr. Birling described as 'unsinkable', and the Great Depression which Mr. Birling thought "There'll be peace and prosperity and rapid progress everywhere".

The author J.B.Priestley had experienced two world wars, and saw the state of the society when the play was set. He had served on the frontline in WWI, and had seen how the lessons of one war had remained unlearnt, that lives of ordinary people had not improved and that another more devastating war had occurred. Priestley was one of the 'socialist cranks' Mr. Birling had mentioned, however without Priestley and other 'socialist cranks' like him to teach the audience and us the lesson of responsibility and moral, we might be taught again in 'fire and blood and anguish'.

Priestley used 'inspector Goole' to teach the Birlings a lesson and the content of this lesson are the themes within the play which Priestley tried to pass on the audience.

In my opinion, J.B.Priestley is inspector Goole. The Birlings family and Gerald is the society or the audience. Those who are convinced are represented by Sheila and Eric, those who did not are Mr. and Mrs. Birling. The person who neither is nor isn't convinced is Gerald.

From the opinions given by the characters in Act , the audience will be able to decide who they want to be.

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Thursday, July 22, 2021

The Conflict of Equal Rights and Responsibility

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"The Conflict of Equal Rights and Responsibility"

One of the most controversial issues of all history is the question of equal rights. Many have pondered the problem, giving these thoughts the privilege to pour through their minds and not cease over the past decades. Although the point of equal rights is to make everyone equal and through this bring them to peace, it has often had the effect of dividing many on the issue. Some say you can go too far with equal rights. Others comment that equal rights should be practiced to an extreme in every nation. Whichever side people take, it is continually a debate that has run through many political arguments, newspaper articles, and even literature. In fact, the film Babe, created as a children's movie, has a strong theme in support of equal rights. However, a well-known novel, Animal Farm, clearly takes an opposite stand to the matter, showing how equal rights can actually lead back to segregation. The director of Babe, Chris Noonan, and the author of Animal Farm, George Orwell, symbolically use animals to get their points across. Between the two, equal rights and responsibility for all animals are defended in two contrary ways through the use of foreshadow, symbolism, and irony.

Before deeply going into why each work supports what it does, it must be known precisely what they support. The film Babe strongly upholds the position of equal rights by using a relationship between a farmer and a pig. Noonan clearly defines his place that equal rights can bring people, as well as animals, together. Animal Farm takes the opposite approach. Instead it does not support equal rights, but strongly opposes the extreme use of it. By doing this he points out that a predominance of equal rights may lead to communistic ideas. He also warns that this will produce a discriminated view.

First of all, in both of these works, the contrary views on equal rights can be seen through the use of foreshadow. As for Babe, little hints here and there can be observed to find a foreboding of what will happen in the story. In the beginning of the movie, the farmer first meets the pig at an auction. It is here that the first foreshadow is seen when the farmer says, "'That'll do, pig,'" and the narrator concludes, "The pig and the farmer regarded each other, and for a fleeting moment, something passed between them, a faint sense of some common destiny," (Noonan). Although the end of the story has not yet been revealed, the thought that something will happen in the future between them still lingers there. In fact, something very important comes about. The last line of the film has Farmer Hoggett repeating, "'That'll do pig,'" which is the same line he says when he first meets Babe. Very clearly, this conveys that foreshadow is cleverly put in this film.

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These lines are linked to this idea of equal rights through one quote made in the middle of the story. Here the narrator comments that, "…farmer Hoggett knew that little ideas, that tickled and nagged and refused to go away, should never be ignored. For in them lie the seeds of destiny," (Noonan). Again the word destiny is used in the same context as before, except this time it refers to something different. Here the idea commented on is a decision the farmer has in letting Babe take a sheep dog's job. Obviously, equal rights can be seen in this foreshadowing that Noonan is emphasizing. Although, in the story, Hoggett's wife does not agree with it, and the judges at the competition disapprove of him doing this, he still feels that Babe has the talent and ability. He believes that any animal can do the job of any other, and that fact of equality should not be disregarded.

However, Animal Farm presents another side to equal rights for animals. In the novel, foreshadow is used two times to present Orwell's opposition to equal rights. First of all, the goal of the rebellion is explained by one of his characters, Old Major, when he says that, "Almost overnight (they) could become rich and free (and) what then must (they) do (but), work night and day, body and soul…" (Orwell 0). Orwell is saying here that there is a sort of equality to this work and that they will be free from the tyranny of dictatorship. This, though, is changed a little when Orwell admits that, "With (the pigs') superior knowledge it was natural that (the pigs) should assume leadership," (45). Here, already, there is foreshadowing of a government being created from this rebellion. In the end, it is clearly revealed that a communistic government is formed by the pigs. The equality that was once a primary ambition now became suppressed by this dominating government.

Secondly, this thought is also shown through one of the commandments the pigs posted that said, "Whatever goes on two legs is an enemy," (Orwell 4). However, this is broken, and the communistic government returns when it is noticed by some of the animals that, "It was a pig walking on his hind legs," (Orwell 11). This communistic government that they desire to be abolished returns to them in a similar form as before. Now the pigs begin to take over, slowly becoming humans. The dictatorship that Old Major had once said they should rid themselves of has now come again. Hence, instead of an equal rights rebellion, it is negatively viewed as a controlling leadership that was just like before. Orwell is trying to say through this that attempts to treat everyone equally and give everyone equal responsibility can lead to a leadership that segregates.

The second device that is used to show the contrast in views of equal rights between Animal Farm and Babe is symbolism. There is a lot of symbolism in each of the

works that deal with real life outside of the stories. In Babe, many things are said that deal with the African-American slavery and discrimination that occurred many decades ago. Some lines symbolically reflect how evil discrimination is when noted that, "There was a time not so long ago when pigs were afforded no respect except by other pigs," (Noonan). This, indirectly implying to the African-American issue, lends further support to Noonan's theme of a lack of equality between the pigs and other animals. Building on this, Noonan derives his theme of equal rights and supports it throughout his plot. He uses this sense of segregation that was often seen in recent history and symbolically shows that equal rights can be supported.

Furthermore, this idea of African-American symbolic segregation is explained when he states that, "(The Pigs) lived their whole lives in a cruel and sunless world," (Noonan). In addition, segregation is demonstrated through human's use of pigs when it is observed that, "The bosses have to eat. Pork they call it, or bacon," (Noonan). Both of these emblematically show that these pigs are just like the colored races that were treated unequally. Noonan takes a very negative approach to this by displaying how these lines so figuratively match that of African-American slavery and shows how they were used by many of the white men that day. Similarly, Noonan explains that the pigs are treated by men just as African-Americans were treated by many of the white men. Through this he uses it to support his view that equal rights are good and should be encouraged. If not, he believes many animals, or people, will be discriminated against.

Animal Farm again puts up a fight on the issue that equal rights can be seen in the contrast of the works through symbolism. It uses a different example to symbolically display its point. In the novel, Orwell uses the Russian Revolution to explain the consequences of equal rights and responsibilities. This revolution promised equality and peace, but what resulted was discrimination between classes and a communistic government. This can be easily perceived when Orwell, slowly through the novel, notes that, "All orders were now issued through Squealer or one of the other pigs,"

(Orwell ). Orwell orchestrates the leadership to come in quietly but dominantly just like how the Russian Revolution came to pass. Here it comes to another milestone in that journey where the leadership of the pigs is secured even further, hence continuing the effort of replacing this idea of equality with that of their new government. Moreover, this communistic government is figuratively spotted when it is stated that,

"They were all slain on the spot. And so the tale of confessions and executions went on, until there was a pile of corpses lying before Napoleon's feet and the air was heavy with the smell of blood, which had been unknown there since the expulsion of Jones," (Orwell ).

It is apparent that this was a government that matched that of the communistic government of the Russian Revolution. It is a true thing that these murders occurred in the revolution and also occur in this story. Orwell is revealing the secrets behind an extreme use equal rights. He is trying to show that if people support this equal rights issue, it can lead to disasters such as this. He wants to give a warning of what might take place in the future so that this may never happen again.

The third and final literary term that is used to support the contrary themes of equal rights in the film and novel is that of irony. This device seems to be used more often than any of the other devices because it more easily illustrates both sides of the equal rights issue. Noonan has many events in his story that link his stand on equal rights through irony. The irony became evident in a sheep dog's, one of his characters, lines when it remarks, "But you're treating them like equals. They're sheep. They're inferior," but Babe retorted back, "Ah, no they're not," (Noonan). Here it is explicitly revealed that the animals on that farm have a view of segregation between each of the other animals. However, Noonan's view on this is quickly shown at the end when Babe won the sheep dog contest, "The pig did it! The perfect score!" Ironically it is displayed that even though the other animals think differently, the pig does better than any other animal at a sheep dog's job. Furthermore, he does not treat the sheep as inferiors but as equals. Noonan's intentions can be clearly identified through the fact that animals as well as humans can be treated with the same respect and given equal amount of rights and responsibilities no matter how different or strange it may be.

Nevertheless, Orwell also has his position viewed through the use of irony. In a very ironic statement towards the end of the novel, Orwell comments on the conditions of the farm when it is said that, "Somehow it seemed as though the farm had grown richer without making the animals themselves any richer-except, of course, for the pigs and the dogs,"(Orwell 1). This line is very important in the wrap-up of the story. This examines how the novel ends and where it stands in view of equal rights to all animals. Obviously it supports the notion that the animals are not given the equal rights they strove for but receive a communistic government. Ironically, according to Orwell, only the dogs and pigs grow richer and the other animals, which desire the equal rights above all else, stay the same as before.

In addition to this, all the commandments, which each of the animals adore and follow, change. Orwell states that, "There was nothing there now except a single Commandment. It ran All animals are equal but some animals are more equal than others," (Orwell 1). This is ironic for two reasons. One is that equal means equal, and there is no way that someone can be more equal than someone else, hence if they were, they are not equal anymore. Secondly, the commandments are changed so that some can be more equal than others, instead of the commandment which stated that, "All animals are created equal," (Orwell 4). It is changed for the purpose of slowly moving the pigs' rule back to the original human-type of rule.

Finally, also along the lines of the commandments, there are laws that were created that oppose any type of relatedness for animals to follow in the footsteps of humans. Such laws are that no animal shall wear human clothing, sleep in a bed, or drink alcohol (Orwell 4). Yet, at the end of the story, "The creatures outside looked from pig to man, and from man to pig, and from pig to man again; but already it was impossible to say which was which," (Orwell 1). The pigs went from animals to humans and from an equal rights ambition to a communistic government. Orwell continues to stress in his novel that equal rights can put such a headship in power, and in this novel it leads to a segregation of the rest of the animals from the pigs. By this, he desires that equal rights should not be abused in this way.

Equal rights is a very complicated issue. Many people have many different views on this topic. Such are the examples of Babe and Animal Farm, which also have conflicting views but use similar resources. Both of these use foreshadow, symbolism and irony to prove that their view on equal rights is the correct view. Both also use animals as strategies to convince the reader(s) of their stance. It is hard to tell whether the film or the novel is right or if both are wrong, therefore making it difficult to decide which has the right answer. Nonetheless, even though equal rights and responsibilities for all people are very controversial issues in the world today, it should never be forgotten that all people are created equal and there are many different people that have many different talents.

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Wednesday, July 21, 2021

Image, Text and Representation. News Analysis

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This analysis is of two separate news programs, both broadcasted on the same day on different channels. These channels are the Nine Network and the ABC.

In this analysis I shall discuss the various selection and organization processes each channel uses in their selected stories and the relative importance to each story, according to each channels news values.

I shall also choose one story that is covered by both news programs, developing two storyboards; I will use these storyboards to analyze the ways in which the stories are constructed on each channel and what semiotic meanings are conveyed. I shall also discuss the similarities and differences in their respective approach to each story.

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Selection and Organization of stories.

I shall begin by discussing the differences in the number of reports covered by each channel. The ABC broadcast covered 0 reports in all, including the weather, sport and finance reports.

The Nine Networks coverage however, only covered 18 reports including the weather, sport and finance reports. The coverage of two more reports by the ABC could be possibly justified by the fact that there are no commercial breaks to interrupt broadcasting. This could also be responsible for the differences in the time spent by the Nine Network on certain areas such as the finance report.

It is also important to note the considerable differences in the order of reports by each network. The first difference I noticed was that the Nine Networks first eight stories were all nationally based within Australia, whereas only the first three stories covered by the ABC were nationally based stories. This could suggest the different news values incorporated by each channel as significant factors in the processes and order of content choices, which are influenced by specific genres.

Alternatively this could also be the result of ownership pressures on the Nine Network to produce more locally and nationally based stories. Another important aspect of the news values employed by the Nine Network are the possible pressures of ratings value which have a direct result in the commercial investments by advertisers.

The ABC, which is funded by the Australian government, seems to have less constraints when it comes to coverage content, this point is also emphasized by the difference in international content by each channel. This difference in international content was very apparent, with the ABC covering nine international stories, compared to the Nine Network coverage of only four international stories. This comparison further emphasizes my previous point on the possible pressures on the Nine Network to produce more locally and nationally based news stories.

To back up previous arguments concerning the influences in news selection values, I shall now include into my argument, a system which was defined by Herman and Chomsky, they state as follows '…if the news media perform a societal purpose at all, it is to inculcate and defend the economic, social and political agenda of privileged groups that dominate the domestic society and the state'. ' Propaganda campaigns may be instituted either by the state itself or by one or more of the top media firms (or even in unison), but in all instances the collaboration of the mass media is a prerequisite'. (188 , excerpt in ITR Reader, Wk Allen, S)

This system developed by Herman and Chomsky 'defines its effectivity in terms of a 'multiple filter system'. These multiple filters consist of five components, each of which interact and reinforce one another', I shall include only two of these filters which I deem necessary to the argument of the Nine Networks possible influences of the organization and content of specific stories. These key aspects are as follows

1.'This filter concerns the commercial basis of the dominant news organizations…. specifically the concentration of ownership and cross-ownership patterns…. at the same time the resultant 'profit orientation of these organizations, many of which are under intense pressure from stockholders, directors and bankers to focus on the 'bottom line', is a further key aspect of this filter shaping news coverage'

.'The second filter pertains to the influence of advertising, the principal income source for commercial news organizations, on media content. With advertising the free market does not yield a neutral system in which final buyer choice decides.

The advertisers' choices influence media prosperity and survival…. there is a strong preference for content, which does not call into question their own politically conservative principles or interferes with the 'buying mood' of the audience. (Both filters taken from ITR reader, Wk Allen, S)

Theses two filters further back up my previous arguments as to the possible pressures and influences the Nine Network has on its certain choices of content and organization processes.

In relation to this argument, these pressures could also have a direct bearing on the difference in time spent on selected stories by each channel, an example of this, is the differences in the time spent by each channel on the finance report.

The Nine Networks finance report lasted for only thirty seconds, whereas the ABC devoted two minutes to this specific report.

This significant difference could suggest the contrasting news values by each channel are influenced by other significant factors.

These factors could again be pressures by owners and investors, which the ABC seems to have less of compared with the Nine Network.

There are other significant factors that could contribute to the differences each channel places on specific topics; these are largely known as the 'unspoken rules or codes of newsworthiness'.

'These include the following significant factors, conflict, relevance, timeliness, simplification, personalization, unexpectedness, continuity, composition, reference to elite nations, and reference to elite persons, cultural specificity, and negativity'.

It is important to note 'that while news values are always changing over time and are inflected differently from one news organization to the next, it is still possible to point to these and related news values as being relatively consistent criteria informing these assignments of significance'. (Excerpt in ITR Reader, Wk, Allen, S)

These unspoken rules could also have a huge influence on the inclusion and exclusion of certain genre types covered on both the Nine Network and the ABC. An example of this is in the comparison between the two networks' broadcasts, the Nine Network included a story about bottles of expensive wine being sold for substantial amounts of money, I personally think that this story did not fit into the afore mentioned rules and codes of newsworthiness. The ABC did not cover this story; in fact all of the stories covered by the ABC seemed to contain something that was listed in the rules and codes of newsworthiness, they contained in a ideological sense, issues of relevant importance to most of the addressees who watch the news to be informed, not entertained. The ABC does, in its addresser role, have to maintain its ideological duty as the station representing the people of Australia. It is also important to know that ideology in short ' is the attempt to fix meanings and world views by power.' (Barker, C, 1, p17)

Comparison of one story, on both channels

The story, which I have chosen to analyze, occurred after a shooting in the northeast suburbs of Adelaide.

This story appeared to be constructed on both the Nine Network and ABC, channels very similarly, although on closer analysis, I found them to be constructed considerably different in their respective approaches to the story.

Firstly it has to be noted first that the framing of each story was very similar, although one of differences, was how close the ABC shots were to the action. With six close up shots by the ABC, comparing this to the four close up shots broadcasted by the Nine Network there seems to be little difference until the number of long shots is compared. The biggest difference in the framing was the Nine Networks choice of twenty long shots in its two-minute story, there is a significant difference compared to the ABC's decision to go with only eleven long shots.

What this comparison could signify is the Nine Networks choice to remain at a 'normal camera distance is because it establishes an intimate, comfortable relationship with on-screen characters'. (Excerpt from ITR reader, Wk , Ward, I.) '

This could also signify to the addressees, that the ABC, as the addresser, are inviting the viewers to have a closer look at what's going on, to give them a front row seat as the action unfolds. These could also signify the differences in ideological approaches taken by each channel; the Nine Networks choice to look over the shoulders of the police from a safe distance and calls on us to make our own conclusions, this signifies the expressive function of address that we the viewers are on the side of " law and order" and keep viewers at a distance to signify that we are part of the 'thin blue line'. This also indicates the above signs are the constructions of the 'phatic functions that exist in the relationship between the addresser and addressee'. (Thwaites et al, 00, p.18)

These phatically produced relationships between addresser and addressee are present on both channels' respective broadcasts, the conative functions, which are present throughout the numerous signs used, are constructing the addressees to be upstanding members of the community. This could also be linked to the relations of who is interviewed in each report; both networks chose to interview two people in their reports, the ABC chose to interview a police officer present at the scene and a local worried parent, the Nine Network however, chose to interview the same officer and a journalist who witnessed the high speed chase. The difference in these approaches again indicate ideological differences in their choices, the ABC's interview with the local female has possible signifier/signified relations to the other interview with the officer, there are also relationships with the cameraman's choice of shots, the anchors commentary and final statement. Firstly, the cameras shot of local parents with their children signifies their expression of concern for their children. This shot is also directly connected to the interview of the woman; she also signifies the worried parents concerns. The police officer interviewed on both networks signifies 'law and order' in society and also signifies to worried viewers that the situation is under control, he is also a metonym of the police force itself, in this sense he represents the police who are working at the scene. The worried parents in both the interview and the shot are metonyms of the general public, they are in a sense taking on both paradigmatic roles as addresser and addressee, they speak and syntagmatically show theirs and the viewers concerns on camera, it is also important to notice that neither interviewee gazes directly at the camera, they are both looking away from us at an angle, this is emphasizing that it is not the persons who are addressing us, but the role in which the person is placed in the situation, the addressee is 'one has who already been interpellated'. The woman ideologically interpellates the worried community; the police officer ideologically interpellates the tax paying citizens.

It is also interesting to note that the Nine Network chose to link this story with another siege, which subsequently happened only streets away from the major incident, the ABC however had no mention of this story in their broadcast. What this again suggests are the different news values incorporated into both networks are significant factors when choosing their stories, this comparison further emphasizes the Nine Networks commitments or pressures in producing local and national news.

In closing this analysis, I shall state what semiotic meanings are conveyed by the final comments made by each anchorperson in their respective reports.

The final comment, by Nine Network reporter Gerda Jezuchowski on the afore mentioned story states "a search of the house later, uncovered stolen property, possibly linked to a car chop shop" she then goes on to link this particular story to a similar incident which happened soon after. This final statement compared to ABC reporter Sharon Smiths final statement is somewhat different in their respective angles. Sharon Smith states "police believe the other alleged offender escaped in the Ute and have described him as dangerous". This final comment has ideological implication attached to it, she is warning the viewer, subsequently producing an assumed ideological view, that the viewer will of course agree with her, that this escaped offender is considered dangerous, still out there loose in our peaceful ideological society.


Allen, Stuart, (1), 'making news Truth, Ideology, and News Work', Ch.

News Culture, Buckingham, Open University, pp 48-8. ( Excerpt in ITR reader, Wk )

Barker, Chris, "Global television and global culture' Ch. from Television, Globalisation and Cultural Identities, Buckingham, Open University Press, pp-5

Thwaites, Tony Davis, Lloyd Mules, Warwick, (00) Introducing Cultural and Media Studies, A Semiotic Approach, Palgrave.

Ward, Ian 15, 'TV News' excerpt, Politics of the Media, South Melbourne, Macmillan, pp77-88

Please note that this sample paper on Image, Text and Representation. News Analysis is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Image, Text and Representation. News Analysis, we are here to assist you. Your cheap research papers on Image, Text and Representation. News Analysis will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Defender of the Pearl:Ndyakira Amooti

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The issue of environmental degradation is one that every country must deal with. With degradation come pollution, physical destruction, and wildlife destruction to name a few. There are also the troubles of diseases, sickness, starvation, and overpopulation that we all must face and deal with. Life comes down to making a living, and taking care of one's self…or does it? This is not true for a Ugandan man named Ndyakira Amooti.

Uganda was once known as "The Pearl of Africa" because of the magnificent variety of wildlife and scenic beauty. During the 170's under Idi Amin's regime Uganda was torn apart by civil unrest. It was during that time that the wildlife was slaughtered and sold, and the natural resources that the Pearl was known for were pillaged and destroyed(1). "Forests were felled and burned, poaching went unpunishedand the pearl lost its luster"(). In a period of about 15 years Amin's regime was toyed back and forth between other regimes, tearing apart what was once highly valued among the country and continent. It was also during that time that Uganda began to realize that more needed to be done to insure the people's rights to free speech, and to insure that the beauty and diversity that Uganda was known for was safe. Then in 186 Amin's regime was banished, and free press was established in Uganda, contributing to an increase in environmental awareness and free press. It was during this time that Ndyakira Amooti led as the voice for conservation in Uganda.

Born in the African country of Uganda, Amooti spent his life on an endless crusade to protect Uganda's environment. Working for the Ugandan Newspaper the New Vision in Kampala, Amooti worked as a chief editor, and for a period of approximately 15 years, as the only journalist writing about the environment. His range of work went from exposing smuggling of endangered species such as African Grey Parrots and Chimpanzees, to encouraging the Ugandan government to stop the bulldozing of forests and set up several national parks, to covering stories trying to encourage education on the AIDS/HIV virus that is wiping out significant portions of the continent of Africa.

Amooti was a world renowned environmental journalist known to many as "the ape," and nick-named the "gorilla" for his work mostly with primate trading in Uganda, which had become a major trans-shipment point for wildlife smugglers. In 14 Amooti helped two American undercover wildlife agents carry out a sting operation that uncovered illegal trading and selling of endangered species by airport personnel, authorities, businessmen, and game officers. This resulted in a large increase in the awareness by the public, and crackdown of this industry in Uganda. It is because of this awareness that he has been honored with the Roll of Honour by the United Nations Environmental Programme, as well as receiving a letter of commendation from Prince Philip, the president of the Wildlife Fund for Nature, Knighthood was awarded by Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands, appointment to the Board of Trustees of the Uganda Wildlife Authority (which he turned down), and in 16 he was awarded the Golden Environmental Prize(). Many accomplishments have been made by people that can be related to the environment, but Ndyakira Amooti has shown it is not fame and praise that he was looking for. Amooti's concern was for what he believed in, and he was risking his life for it. When asked why he turned down the position appointment to the Board of Trustees of the Uganda Wildlife Authority, he said "it would compromise my journalistic work"(). Amooti's work was to inform the people of Uganda to the problems facing their country. In doing so, he exposed himself to mockery and hatred by those that were carrying out the atrocities to the wildlife and environment of Uganda.

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Amooti used the New Vision Newspaper in Kampala Uganda "as a platform to tackle public ignorance" about the lack of infinite natural resources(6). Through feature articles, and exposs Amooti worked feverously to raise the level of public awareness about natural resources, on his country level, and on a global level that did not go unnoticed. It was due to Amooti's reporting of the "relentless march"() of deforestation that persuaded the Ugandan government to establish National Parks for the preservation of their resources, and habitat of the endangered mountain gorilla. Due to the interest by the public, in part because of Amooti's articles, neighboring countries also began establishing National Parks to preserve and reestablish lost resources and wildlife. Unfortunately, though the parks are set up with good intentions, it still takes much persistence and care from the personnel to insure that there is always adequate protection and that the Parks are serving their purposes. That was another of Amooti's commitments to his work. Not only did he raise the awareness, and help institute parks to protect, he worked with many people and agencies such as the Institute of Tropical Forest Conservation to create an environment in which people are still working hard towards the prevention of these illegal wildlife trades and environmental destruction. It is with that in mind that I found Ndyakira Amooti very dedicated, and was able to relate to him. Though he was a journalist, and I a conservation biology major, I find that we share the same ideologies.

In my opinion the best way to get something done in our world today is to educate people on the topics of debate. If people don't know what the problem is, or even that there is a problem, it is hard to fight for a cause, and Ndyakira Amooti knew this. Not only did he fight on endlessly by reporting what was going on environmentally, he wrote five children's books to begin educating Africa's children, so that they in turn will be aware when they become adults. The books follow a young man named Kazoora, who is interested in environmental issues. Kazoora learns what it would be like not having birds, or wetlands, or trees, or grasslands, or animals, through his grandfather. Kazoora's grandfather teaches Kazoora why each of those parts of the environment are important, and how he would be affected if even one was missing(7,8,,10,and 11). The longest of the books was pages, a perfect length for children around the ages of 8-11 years old. Though I'm a college student I found that they were interesting, and short enough that a child would be able to read along, stay attentive, and learn about the importance of our environment. Coming from a conservation major, I feel that this is important to begin as early as possible, and not to solely rely on the adults to ensure a balance in the society. Growing up in California, a state that revolves around natural resources, I attended all of the Earth Days when I was in grade school, as well as knowing about droughts, and how to conserve water, and plant trees. Projects such as planting trees on Arbor Day, and class fundraising to buy 8 acres of rainforest have made me a very environmentally aware adult. Those projects shaped my future, led me into a conservation area of interest, the direction for my career. Now the hard part is doing exactly what Ndyakira Amooti spent his life doing- informing.

Not only did Ndyakira Amooti spend his professional career writing about the environment, and fighting for the liberation of animals from exportation, he lived his personal life in a manor that was consistent with his beliefs. It's common for people to believe that pollution is a bad problem, but yet still drive a car to work every morning. Amooti never owned a car. Nor did he live extravagantly. In fact, when he was on his death bed, despite having the money, Ndyakira declined doctors' advice to undergo a lifesaving operation, because it was not natural. When he died in 1, Ndyakira Amooti's will asked that he not be buried in a coffin or a cemented grave, because it was not environmentally friendly. He was wrapped in a papyrus mat and lowered into a shallow grave, so that he might return to the earth(). He was a member of society that really cared. Though he was a journalist, he was an environmentalist. His education was not from a science background, but he used his skills as a journalist, one who can easily get published his opinions, and know that he is reaching many people, to educate people in a way that is not usually available to typical environmentalists. He was strong willed, and very eccentric. His friends described him as "peculiar and even heedless." It was not uncommon for him to be seen talking to animals, telling them that they needed to run, less they be killed. Ndyakira shared a closeness with the environment around him that is essential to all people within a conservation field, as well as for everyone that lives on this planet. Our environment is something that we cannot live without. The beauty and diversity is something that makes our world livable. Ndyakira knew this, and spent his life trying to teach others the importance of it.

Ndyakira Amooti died from leukemia at the age of 4. His articles can still be found on the front pages of The New Vision. "Gorillas Killed in Bwindi" one states. A remembrance to the never ending struggle that he went through to inform the people of Uganda. Still published so that future generations can read about what terrible things are happening to the world around us, and to share the importance of responsibility as a whole to take care of these human inflicted problems. Just last year two chimpanzees were rescued from smugglers trying to sell them to an Italian diplomat. One died shortly after rescue, but the second was named Ndyakira, which in Runyakitara means, "I will survive"(5). A memory to a man that was so important to this environmental issue that he is still present in every day situations. He is surviving and his legacy will continue for ever.

I found it very hard to find any information about Ndyakira. What information I could find was not personal, more of an emphasis on his work and articles. He placed the importance of the issues he cared about above himself. Four years later his works are still being published. Most of them in German, Russian, and French. Languages that I could not read. Articles from many other countries that are still aware of his work, and the issues that face the entire world. He was not a selfish man, or a "tree hugger," and he definitely was not a follower. He risked his life, and accomplished much in his lifetime. He did much for the country of Uganda. Thanks to him there are now many National parks in place, much tighter enforcement for smuggling, and a sense of freedom for the people that they can make a difference for their environment.

It is with this that I feel Ndyakira Amooti is a wonderful example of an environmental hero. I have personally not heard of many people from Africa making such a difference in their country, let alone globally. Amooti did just that. He intended too. Being a journalist he was able to take advantage of the fact that he could access many people at once. He could send out the message that something needed to be done, and to let everyone know that something was wrong to begin with. Thanks to his diligent work he accomplished that. He was never considered extreme. He lived in a manor that told everyone that he was not just a hypocrite. He "walked the walk."

It is a sad thing to lose a man with such impact. He was not any one extraordinary. He was a simple man that had strong beliefs. He used his ability to reach people for the good of his country. He risked his life to uncover smuggling operations, and even convinced the Ugandan government to create national parks to protect the trees and habitats of many species of animals. All of this he did when he was just a journalist. Not a revered government official. Not anyone with any power, except that of information. In a quote from Ndyakira, I think he summed up his cause and the importance of his work. "Only when people are informed will they be aware, only when they are aware will they take action, and only when they take action will species and the environment be saved"(6).

(1) "From Africa Ndyakira Amooti." Goldman Environmental Foundation. One

Lombard Street, Suite 0, San Francisco, CA 4111. (415)788-00

() "Defender of the Pearl." Article from Time Magazine online archive.


() Ochieng, Levi. "The knight whose quest was to save Uganda's animals." Gauteng

Sun Times, September 5, 1

(4) Amooti, Ndyakira. "Gorillas Killed in Bwindi." Kampala New Vision Newspaper.

June 15

(5) Tenywa, Gerald. "Chimp Named After Ndyakira Amooti." The New Vision Daily

Newspaper. May 5, 00

(6) "Ndyakira Amooti" http//


(7) Amooti,Ndyakira. What a Country without Animals! Fountain Publishers Ltd. Kampala. 18 pp

(8) Amooti,Ndyakira. What a Country without Birds! Fountain Publishers Ltd. Kampala

18 pp

() Amooti,Ndyakira. What a Country without Grasslands! Fountain Publishers Ltd.

Kampala 18 8pp

(10) Amooti,Ndyakira. What a Country without Trees! Fountain Publishers Ltd.

Kampala 18 7pp

(11) Amooti,Ndyakira. What a Country without Wetlands! Fountain Publishers Ltd.

Kampala 18 8pp

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Tuesday, July 20, 2021

Acid Rain

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The Acid Rain Issue

Acid Rain is a serious problem with disastrous effects. Every day this

problem increases. Many believe that this issue is too small to deal with,

Cheap custom writing service can write essays on Acid Rain

but if the acid rain problem is not met with head on, the effects on

people, plants, animals, and the economy will only worsen. In the

following paragraphs you will learn what acid rain is, the effects it has

on human life, animals, the economy, the economic costs, and what is being

done to help to stop this problem. This topic is very important because

acid rain effects everyone everywhere all over the world.I. What is acid

rain?Acid rain is the combination of two chemicals released into the

atmosphere. These chemicals are sulphur dioxide (SO) and nitrogen oxides

(Nox). Natural sources such as volcanoes, sea spray, rotting vegetation

and plankton are all contributors to acid rain, but burning fossil fuels,

such as coal and oil which are referred to as dry emissions are largely to

blame for more than half of the emissions into the world. Nationally, one

hundred and twenty tons of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are emitted

into the air each day.4A. How is acid rain formed?When the sulfur dioxide

reaches the atmosphere, it oxidizes to first form a sulfate ion. It then

becomes sulfuric acid when it joins with hydrogen atoms in the air and

falls back down to earth, usually in the form of rain, snow, or fog.1

Oxidation occurs the most in clouds and heavily polluted air where other

compounds such as ammonia and ozone help to catalyze the reaction,

converting more sulphur dioxide to sulphuric acid. The following are the

stoichiometric equations for the formation of sulphuric acidS (in coal) +

O ? SO SO + O ? SOSO + HO ? HSO4Nitric oxide and nitric dioxide

are also components of acid rain. Its sources are mainly from power

stations and exhaust fumes. Like sulphur dioxide, these nitrogen dioxides

also rise into the air and are oxidized in the clouds to form nitric acid.

Through this diagram you can better understand how acid rain is formed and

emitted into the earthII. Effects of acid rainAcid rain causes problems

in almost every aspect of the environment. Acid rain can have a

devastating effect on aquatic life, crops, forests, buildings, and also

human life. A. The human environmentAcid rain has a multiplicity of

effects in the human environment. The corrosion of limestone buildings in

towns and cities is one such effect. The acid also eats through the pipes

that channel water to the lakes. Far more insidious are the increasing

incidents of lung cancer, bronchitis, emphysema and asthma attributed to

breathing in the tiny particles of sulphur and other pollutants. Many

people drink water everyday that is laced with these harmful chemicals

without even knowing it.B. The natural environmentMuch of the early

concerns over the effects of acid rain are on the trees. The concern is

centered on the direct contact of the acid rain to the leaves of the

trees. It was estimated that more then sixty five percent of trees are

effected by acid rain.1 The rain scars the leaves, withers ferns and

lichens, accelerates the death of coniferous needles, sterilizes seeds,

and weakens the forest to a state that is vulnerable to disease

infestation. The rate of forest growth in New Hampshire has declined

eighteen percent between 156 and 165. Forests aren't alone in the

devastation. It has also been found that twenty thousand lakes have been

acidified through the changes in the groundwater.1 The soil is receiving

what seems to be an overdose of fertilizer or a large drenching of

vinegar. Unfortunately the damage to the soil may not be reversible or

repairable. On some croplands, tomatoes only grow to half of their full

weight as well as other crop deformities. These problems not only effect

the environment, but they also effect the economy. III. Effects of acid

rain on the economyBecause of acid rain, many fish have died. This reduces

the ability of fish being caught and sold. People who rely on fishing for

their income may find themselves without a job. Owners of farms may be

unable to produce quality crops to be sold. With the continued

deterioration of buildings, the economy will have to spend more money to

repair such problems.A. Economic costs of acid rainIt currently costs the

American automobile industry sixty one million dollars each year to use

acid-resistant paint on new vehicles. In turn, the cost of the vehicle

will increase to compensate for the cost of the resistant paint. This

inflation in automobile cost can prove to be a problem for many that rely

on a car but can not afford the influx. Acid rain is also responsible for

the loss of two billion to four billion dollars worth of wheat, corn,

soybeans, and peanuts. This is devastating for the income of the farmers

as well as the people who purchase these goods. Without these goods being

readily available, the prices will increase and the products could become

hard to get. The National Academy of Science estimates damage from acid

rain to be at least five billion dollars a year in the United States

alone.4IV. Attempts by the economy to control the acid rain problem A. The

Clean Air Act Amendment of 10There have been many propositions and

attempts to reduce the production of acid rain. In order to make this

attempt; the emission of sulfur dioxide must be reduced. One way of doing

this was by passing the Clean Air Act. The 10 Clean Air Acts sulfur

dioxide reduction program will complement health-based sulfur dioxide

pollution limits already in place to protect the public and the

environment from both nearby and distant sources of sulfur dioxide. The

law sets up a market-based system designed to lower sulfur dioxide

pollution levels. Beginning in the year 000, annual releases of sulfur

dioxide will be about forty percent lower than the 180 levels. Reducing

sulfur dioxide releases should cause a major reduction in acid rain. The

reduction is accomplished in two phases.Phase I of the program went into

effect January 1, 15.4 Big coal-burning boilers in one hundred and ten

power plants in twenty-one Midwest, Appalachian, Southeastern and

Northeastern states will have to reduce releases of sulfur dioxide and

nitrogen oxide omissions.4 As a result of Phase I, acid rain

concentrations have lowered by twenty five percent.4 Today, the average

cost annually experienced in Phase I is about two hundred dollars per

ton.7 In 000, Phase II of the acid rain program goes into effect, further

reducing the sulfur dioxide releases from the big coal-burning power

plants and covering other smaller polluters. Affected sources are

required to install systems that monitor emissions in order to track

progress. The average annual cost for this phase is about one hundred and

eighty five to two hundred and twenty dollars per ton.7To cut down on

nitrogen oxide pollution, EPA will require power plants to reduce their

nitrogen oxide releases, and will require reductions in nitrogen oxide

releases from new cars. Reducing nitrogen oxide releases will reduce both

acid rain and smog formation. Companies that release less than the amount

of regulated emissions can sell pollution credits to other companies.4

Each source must have sufficient credits to cover its annual emissions.

Companies that fail to meet the federal requirements are subject to a two

thousand dollar per ton excess emission fee.4 B. The Air Quality

AccordThis agreement was signed by the United States and Canada to

guarantee cleaner air and a healthier environment for both Canadians and

Americans.5 On August 5, 180, the United States and Canada agreed to

Memorandum of Intent concerning transboundrary air pollution. The

Memorandum of Intent stated that sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions would

be lowered by using previous laws that were established through the Clean

Air Act. Scientists were appointed on both sides to regulate the

progress.This agreement only intensified the debate instead of solving the

problem. The Canadians felt that the United States were not progressing

and following the agreed laws so they denounced the existing agreement.5

After many years of conflict the United States and Canada signed yet

another agreement in 186.5C. The Joint Report of the Special Envoys on

Acid RainIn this report the United States publicly stated that acid rain

was a serious environmental problem and agreed to implement a five year,

five hundred billion dollar technology demonstration program.5 In the end,

it was found that the US was not going to take serious action to control

the acid rain problem. In 10 when President George Bush was elected he

signed the Clean Air Act. This is when Canada and the United States agreed

to once again sign the Air Quality Accord. From then on the accord deemed

success. Even though this accord deemed success the Canadians still

believe that the United States is the major cause of their acid rain

problems.5 Canada also feels they have done more to control the effects of

the acid rain pollution in North America.5D. What is Europe Doing?Europe

has formed the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN-ECE).6

The European nations have signed two protocols on sulfur aimed at their

acid rain problems. 1. The 185 Helsinki Protocol on the Reduction of

SulfurThis protocol calls for a significant drop in transboundrary

emissions by all parties that participate.6 Twenty-one ECE countries,

including Canada have accepted this protocol. By 180 they have dropped

emissions by fifty percent.6. The 14 Olso Protocol on Further Reduction

of Sulfur Eighteen countries including Canada have ramified this

protocol.6 The goal of this protocol is to reduce the area where acid rain

exceeds the critical loads according to a formula that minimizes the total

cost of reduction.6 The UN-ECE is also trying to negotiate another

protocol to address acid rain as well as smog and other effects. V. How to

prevent and educate about acid rainA. Acid Rain 000The primary aim of

Acid Rain 000 is to educate young people about the changing nature of

acid rain and the response of environmental systems to these changes. The

participants of this program will be informed of the causes of acid rain

and they will also recognize that the effect of acid disposition is

variable and dependent on the capacity of a particular system to absorb

the pollution. The project targets children of all ages because the

awareness of acid rain is not restricted to any age level. At the primary

school level the children will take part in simple monitoring programs to

record acid rain levels. At the secondary level, children will be able to

analyze the results. Schools from all around the world participate in

this program because the acid rain problem is international. Without

joining a program there are many things that can be done to help reduce

formation of acid rain. They are

Conserve electricity.4

Use automobiles less.4

Collect water/snow samples and test them for pH.4

Contact local environmental groups about their involvement in the acid

rain issue.4

Study historical sites, buildings or monuments in your area and determine

how they are being affected by acid rain.4VI. ConclusionAcid rain can be a

devastating problem to all countries, but with the implementation of the

Clean Air Act, the Accord, and many other reforms that call for the

reduction of sulfur and nitrogen oxide releases, the acid rain problem can

be regulated. With help from everyone being conscious about what they are

doing day to day to contribute to the problem, the issue can turn to be a

problem of the past. Since the passage of the Clean Air Act, acid rain

levels have fallen dramatically across large portions of North America.8

But the decline doesn't mean that the problem is gone. There is still much

that everyone can do to help the problem and to help lower the annual cost

to the economy.If you are interested in learning more about the acid rain

problem you may want to contact the Acid Rain Foundation in Raleigh, North

Carolina, The Department of Environmental Protection in Harrisburg,

Pennsylvania, or Pennsylvanians for Acid Rain Control in Harrisburg,

Pennsylvania. These and thousands of other organizations strive to educate

the community about the acid rain problem and would be more than happy to

send you information about what you can do to help.Bibliography

Leslie R. Alm, Scientists and the Acid Rain policy in Canada and the US.

Science, Technology, and Human Values, 17, 4

Acid Rain Bad News About The Good News Business Week, 5 October 1,


Anne E. Smith, Jeremy Platt, A. Denny Ellerman, The cost of reducing SO

It's (higher than you think) Public Utilities Fortnightly, 15 May 18,

Acid Rain-A Definition http//

Whats being done? What is Europe and the UN-ECE doing?


Acid Rain The Facts http//

Department od Enviormental Protection, Acid Rain In Pennsylvania


Chuck, Acid Rain ChuckIII's College Resources

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Monday, July 19, 2021

An american tragedy

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While society has changed dramatically since 15, Dreisers novel, which shows the futility of The American Dream and the tragedies that trying to live it can cause, accurately summarizes social mores of this and any time period.

Dressers most famous character is Clyde Griffiths. Clyde, the main character in An American Tragedy, is an attractive, morally weak, stupid 0-year old in the 10s. His parents, a source of constant humiliation, are destitute preachers who force him to sing gospel hymns. Clyde knows that he has poor clothes, little education, and a blacklisted family, and is determined not to live his life in squalor, as his parents have. To do this, he must reject their beliefs and morals, which are certain to make him a failure. He begins his downward spiral while working in a malt shop. When girls are not attracted to him, Clyde, longing for companionship, decides he must buy better clothes. To buy better clothes, he finds work at the prestigious Greene-Davidson Hotel. (Only, Clydes naïve mother, Elvira is unsure of whether the Hotel is a safe atmosphere.) Exposed to wealth and high society, he becomes corrupted.

Clydes hopes are shattered after a run-in with the law. He flees to Kansas and works odd jobs until he is hired into the regarded Union League Club. At the Union League, he meets his rich uncle, who gives him a job in his collar factory. Clyde moves to Lycurgus and, because of his last name, good looks, and charm, he soon enters the upper echelons of Lycurgus's society. Less than two years later, he is abandoned by that society. He dies in the electric chair with little respect and no possessions.

Until his last months, Clyde has no morals. He wastes 0 years chasing windmills. Then, in jail, with less than one year to live, he is forced to give up his chase. When the caring, friendly Reverend McMillan befriends Clyde, both of them discover God. Confession, Clyde feels, will save his soul. (Ironically, it takes his life.) He instantly has morals; when he reads the Bible and prays, he accepts and copes with his failure and guilt.

Buy an american tragedy term paper

From an early age, Clyde is a social and economic outcast. He blames his parents for his failure and vows not to live his life with them. After working in a malt shop for several months, Clyde finds a job at the Greene-Davidson Hotel. There, he makes more than $40 a week there, not including room and board. Finally, he is able to dress well, enter a higher social class, meet females, and escape his family. His plans are never realized his friend runs over a little girl during a joyride in a stolen Packard.

Clyde flees to Kansas, but he is too poor to live immorally until he works at the Union League Club, where he meets his rich uncle, Sam Griffiths. Sam employs Clyde in his shirt factory, and Clyde quickly succumbs to sexual temptation. In months, his lower-class girlfriend is pregnant. This does not phase Clyde, who is now a prominent member of Lycurgus. He falls in love with a beautiful, respected, rich girl, and rejects his old girlfriend, who he promised to love forever.

His pregnant girlfriend is in despair; she will be fired for her relations with Clyde, and society will reject her for not being married. Her only way out is to threaten to expose his libido to everyone unless he marries her. Clyde is intelligent enough to realize that if she reveals his secret, he will never have his beautiful girlfriend. So, he plans his pregnant girlfriends murder. Under the guise of a honeymoon, he takes her to a deserted lake and drowns her. His crime backfires; it is so poorly planned that police have a warrant for his arrest less than one day later. He is arrested, tried, and sentenced to electrocution.

Truly unconscious, Clyde does not contemplates his crime or his guilt for more than a year. With the help of a benevolent pastor, he finds God. Clyde accepts his guilt and fate, and is reconciled. Finally, he thinks about someone other than himself. He prays that other people will understand his follies and save themselves, and for a time he believes they will. But he is too late his friends are ruined, and he is going to die. Less than one week later, he is electrocuted, ending his moral conflict. His moral conflict continues he is reincarnated into Russell, and the novel abruptly restart. Clydes reincarnation proves Dressers contention that all humans are seeking the same empty promises.

Constantly at odds with is environment, it appears that Clyde must adapt. For example, when he moves to Kansas, he seems mellower and more meditative. In reality, however, he just does not have the opportunity to screw up his life. Clyde is a stock character until his last days; he is greed. Regardless of the consequences, he wants more -- more money, more social contacts, more sex, and more happiness (the one thing he will never have). His pursuit of the American Dream quickly becomes machinelike.

In a typical novel, there would have to be a dramatic change for a little choir boy to become a murderer. Not this novel. For Clyde, each section of life further weakens his morals. During his early romances, he only courts girls for kisses and uses his money to drink and dress stylishly. Later, he uses influence, looks, and charm, to seduce Roberta. He uses these same qualities to make Sondra love him. Seeing an easy way out of his dilemma, he kills Roberta. That does not even seem to be a problem for him -- his morals are so lacking that murder is only step above below him.

At the end of the novel, Clyde is born again. When Pastor McMillan visits, Clyde -- for the first time ever, and despite the possibility that the pastor might ruin his chance to be freed from jail -- confesses his crime. He begins to read scriptures and thinks that he is similar to fellow seekers of the Elusive American Dream. He regrets that he could have saved himself many times, but is now beyond help. He wishes he had followed his mother and father, who are happy and loving. Once Clyde trusts God, he dies.

Long before Clyde was a character, he was Dreisers vehicle to enter the mind of the killer, whom he was unable to but wanted to understand (Lundquist 87). Every section of the novel details Clydes meaningless life and shows his progressive moral downfall. In the beginning, Clyde did not have money, sex, or a social life. Throughout his life, he struggled to obtain these things, this purchasable happiness and false sincerity that money could buy or rent. On the road to murder, he begged for a job at the Greene-Davidson Hotel; he used his salary to solicit prostitutes, clothe himself fashionably, and date Hortense. Two years before his death, Clyde still did not realize that his life was useless and horrible, a sham.

Each of Clydes traits (lust, envy, melancholy) is a feature of his uncontrollably weak, vicious morality. He never breaks out of the vicious cycle of pain and pleasure (with more pain than pleasure). When he works at the Greene-Davidson Hotel, he is unfortunate enough to catch a glimpse of high society. Transfixed, he creates a religion, and women, money, and clothes, are his gods. While wandering, he happens to meet his rich uncle. This uncle gives him a job with daunting social, financial, and sexual possibilities. Clyde seduces Roberta (a kind, pretty, poor girl), obsesses about Sondra (a beautiful rich girl who expresses her deepest thoughts in baby talk), then kills Roberta (who threatens to take away his position in society). Clyde shows no remorse -- for months, he does not think he murdered Roberta.

Clyde has no thoughts everything he does is instinctual. Society taught him that material success and material possessions were everything and he, because of his weak morals, instantly agreed. Whenever Clyde was entranced by a girl, he courted her without thinking whether relations would damage his reputation. He never considered how much his whims would hurt his girl. In Kansas City, when he and his friends crushed a little girl while joy riding in a stolen car, they did not care about the child's condition; their only instinct is to run from the police. More disturbingly, Clyde did not even think he had committed a crime when he killed Roberta -- he killed her because that the easiest way out of his dilemma, the easiest way to in societys good grace. When she drowned, he fled from his obligations instinctively, then [transformed] his mental and moral cowardice into ... accidental murder. That, to him, was instinct. Clyde was more an embodiment of the naturalist movement than a real person.

An American Tragedy is the definitive guidebook to the futility of pursuing The American Dream. In its 874 pages of small print, not one character lives the dream that they all sought. Uncle Griffiths really is not a tycoon; only Clydes biased narration leads us to this inaccurate conclusion. Sondra is not the most intelligent girl in the world; she speaks baby talk when deep in thought. She is not particularly beautiful; Clyde is attracted to any good-looking woman. She is not super-elite, either; she may have a butler and a lake side mansion, but Clydes and Dreisers tendencies to exaggerate -- Clyde for vanity, Dreiser to reinforce his naturalist theme -- have blown her out of proportion.

Clydes women -- Hortense, Sondra, Roberta, Rita, and many others -- are nothing more than pleasure seekers who want more from life. Hortense, as her name suggests, uses boys for money; she hopes one of them will deliver her from poverty. She is doomed. If Clyde had not chased Hortense, the girl in Kansas would not be dead. Sondra wants to stay socially active, but Clydes infamy forces her and other elite socialites to move elsewhere. She has no goals and loves on a whim, so she will turn out no better than Clydes other girls. Roberta is a pathetic, emotional creature who only wants love and happiness. When Clyde does not marry her, she threatens to expose him. Clyde kills her so he can have sex with Sondra. Rita, a bad girl in Lycurgus, only wants sex. Ironically, she is one of the two content characters in the novel.

The poster child for the futility of the American Dream is Clyde Griffiths. During his short life, he wants only wealth, social status, and sex (together, the American Dream). He wins his way into Chicago and Lycurgus high societies, is ruined by wealth, and is abandoned. In each city, he has several romantic interludes, which give him a sense of mission and fulfillment for a moment. But, after each affair, he sinks deeper into despair, which corrodes his abrasive morals. Soon, there is nothing Clyde will not do for money, social status, and sex -- he will even kill for it. Each characters emphasis on material success is the cause of tragedy.

Strangely, Clydes parents remain surprisingly happy. Their secret is religion. Whether it is an opiate (for Clyde), a loose set of guidelines (for Uncle Griffiths), or a binding pact (for Elvira Griffiths), religion gives meaning to otherwise meaningless and chaotic lives. For Clyde, religion provides a sense of unity and wholeness, and helps him realize that he is wrong and ask for forgiveness. Uncle Griffithss religion is a set of moral guidelines which all humans should follow -- love and justice. (E.g. Despite his qualms, Uncle Griffiths does not pay for Clydes retrial, because he knows Clyde is guilty. While his policies are sound, Uncle Griffiths fails. As he said, mixing business and family is folly; he trusted Clyde, and Clyde ruined him.

Elvira is seemingly the most content, both with her failures and her successes, because she bound a pact with God. She finds solace in the Bible; no matter what may go wrong, she will always have help and understanding. When the novel ends, every main character but her is dead or a failure. She, however, changes peoples lives -- even Clydes and the skeptical DA Masons. While she may be naïve, whenever others fall to temptation, Elvira follows her morals. Despite her sons electrocution and her daughters illegitimate child, Elvira is not ruined by the American Dream, and all because of religion.

For example, Sondra is the American Dream, but wealth, good looks, and a high social status do not guarantee her success or happiness -- her lover is electrocuted, and she is forced to move away. Hortense, Roberta, Ratter, and Rita are doomed from birth -- their poverty will prevent their success. Clyde, however, is the peak of naturalism. He spends a lifetime searching for happiness. On occasion, he feels whole, but he quickly feels empty again. His stupidity and weak morals, however, guarantee his failure.

At the end of An American Tragedy, Clyde discovers that life would have been better had he followed his parents moral and religious guidelines. However, he realizes that religion will not save his earthly life, nor will his death change the outcome of anyone elses miserable life; people ignore Clydes failure and suffering, and continue chasing the American Dream. Destiny and social status, he reasons, will bar nearly everyone from living the Dream. An American Tragedy is a classic -- its moral is timeless.

Please note that this sample paper on an american tragedy is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on an american tragedy, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on an american tragedy will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!


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